# Summary (Unit 1)

(Optional) Outside Reading:  Look at the Data! (≈1200 words)
(Optional) Outside Reading:  Creating Data Files (≈1200 words)

This summary provides a quick recap of the material in the Exploratory Data Analysis unit. Please note that this summary does not provide complete coverage of the material, only lists the main points.

• The purpose of exploratory data analysis (EDA) is to convert the available data from their raw form to an informative one, in which the main features of the data are illuminated.
• When performing EDA, we should always:
• use visual displays (graphs or tables) plus numerical measures.
• describe the overall pattern and mention any striking deviations from that pattern.
• interpret the results we find in context.
• When examining the distribution of a single variable, we distinguish between a categorical variable and a quantitative variable.
• The distribution of a categorical variable is summarized using:
• Display: pie-chart or bar-chart (variation: pictogram → can be misleading — beware!)
• Numerical measures: category (group) percentages.
• The distribution of a quantitative variable is summarized using:
• Display: histogram (or stemplot, mainly for small data sets). When describing the distribution as displayed by the histogram, we should describe the:
• Overall pattern → shape, center, spread.
• Deviations from the pattern → outliers.
• Numerical measures: descriptive statistics (measure of center plus measure of spread):
• If distribution is symmetric with no outliers, use mean and standard deviation.
• Otherwise, use the five-number summary, in particular, median and IQR (inter-quartile range).
• The five-number summary and the 1.5(IQR) Criterion for detecting outliers are the ingredients we need to build the boxplot. Boxplots are most effective when used side-by-side for comparing distributions (see also case C→Q in examining relationships).
• In the special case of a distribution having the normal shape, the Standard Deviation Rule applies. This rule tells us approximately what percent of the observations fall within 1,2, or 3 standard deviations away from the mean. In particular, when a distribution is approximately normal, almost all the observations (99.7%) fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean.
• When examining the relationship between two variables, the first step is to classify the two relevant variables according to their role and type: and only then to determine the appropriate tools for summarizing the data. (We don’t deal with case Q→C in this course).

• Case C→Q: Exploring the relationship amounts to comparing the distributions of the quantitative response variable for each category of the explanatory variable. To do this, we use:
• Display: side-by-side boxplots.
• Numerical measures: descriptive statistics of the response variable, for each value (category) of the explanatory variable separately.
• Case C→C: Exploring the relationship amounts to comparing the distributions of the categorical response variable, for each category of the explanatory variable. To do this, we use:
• Display: two-way table.
• Numerical measures: conditional percentages (of the response variable for each value (category) of the explanatory variable separately).
• Case Q→Q: We examine the relationship using:
• Display: scatterplot. When describing the relationship as displayed by the scatterplot, be sure to consider:
• Overall pattern → direction, form, strength.
• Deviations from the pattern → outliers.

Labeling the scatterplot (including a relevant third categorical variable in our analysis), might add some insight into the nature of the relationship.

In the special case that the scatterplot displays a linear relationship (and only then), we supplement the scatterplot with:

• Numerical measures: Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) measures the direction and, more importantly, the strength of the linear relationship. The closer r is to 1 (or -1), the stronger the positive (or negative) linear relationship. r is unitless, influenced by outliers, and should be used only as a supplement to the scatterplot.
• When the relationship is linear (as displayed by the scatterplot, and supported by the correlation r), we can summarize the linear pattern using the least squares regression line. Remember that:
• The slope of the regression line tells us the average change in the response variable that results from a 1-unit increase in the explanatory variable.
• When using the regression line for predictions, you should beware of extrapolation.
• When examining the relationship between two variables (regardless of the case), any observed relationship (association) does not imply causation, due to the possible presence of lurking variables.
• When we include a lurking variable in our analysis, we might need to rethink the direction of the relationship → Simpson’s paradox.